There have been several studies which have demonstrated the effects of steroid and steroid derivatives on the body ( Table 1 ) [ 1 , 13 , 14 ]. Bhasin et al. performed a prospective, placebo controlled study evaluating the effects of supraphysiologic levels testosterone enanthate (TE) on muscle mass over a 10-week period [ 15 ]. The authors concluded that patients with supraphysiologic levels of TE had a significantly greater increase in their lean muscle mass as well as a more significant increase in size of their legs and triceps, and a more significant increase in the weight they could bench press and squat compared to the control group. However, despite the benefits steroids provide in muscle mass and strength, multiple studies have demonstrated that there are innumerable side effects associated with these drugs including cardiovascular disease, testicular atrophy, sudden cardiac death, liver disease and mood alterations [ 16 - 19 ].
[ Editor's Note: Chryste Gaines, MBA, Olympic gold and bronze medal sprinter and former teammate of Marion Jones in the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, stated the following in a Dec. 22, 2008 email to in response to the IOC ruling:
"We are being unfairly punished. If the drug testing agencies cannot determine if an athlete is taking performance enhancing drugs how are the teammates supposed to know?... It negates all the family functions, church functions, and social events we missed in the name of winning an Olympic medal." ]