Many people begin to notice meaningful pain relief within two to five days after an injection. If the treatment proves to be beneficial, its effects may last for one week up to one year. If necessary (and at the discretion of a physician), a patient can typically receive up to three injections during a one-year period. Any more than that, however, can increase the risk of side effects, such as osteoporosis (weakened bone tissue). That’s because cortisone can inhibit the body’s production of vitamin D, which in turn can interfere with the absorption of calcium that’s essential for strong bones.
The caudal approach to the epidural space involves the use of a Tuohy needle, an intravenous catheter, or a hypodermic needle to puncture the sacrococcygeal membrane . Injecting local anaesthetic at this level can result in analgesia and/or anaesthesia of the perineum and groin areas. The caudal epidural technique is often used in infants and children undergoing surgery involving the groin, pelvis or lower extremities. In this population, caudal epidural analgesia is usually combined with general anaesthesia since most children do not tolerate surgery when regional anaesthesia is employed as the sole modality.