Cardiovascular damage from steroids

Heart disease (cardiac disease) is a group of disorders that affect the muscle or blood vessels of the heart. Heart disease is a common form of cardiovascular disease caused by a fatty plaque deposit build up in the blood vessels until it eventually restricts the blood flow leading to a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Heart disease can also be caused by an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia), the thickening or enlarging of the heart muscles (cardiomyopathy), an infection, or heart valve problems. Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the world.

Hemostasis, or the clotting of blood and formation of scabs, is managed by the platelets of the blood. Platelets normally remain inactive in the blood until they reach damaged tissue or leak out of the blood vessels through a wound. Once active, platelets change into a spiny ball shape and become very sticky in order to latch on to damaged tissues. Platelets next release chemical clotting factors and begin to produce the protein fibrin to act as structure for the blood clot. Platelets also begin sticking together to form a platelet plug. The platelet plug will serve as a temporary seal to keep blood in the vessel and foreign material out of the vessel until the cells of the blood vessel can repair the damage to the vessel wall.

The ideal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level in women is less than 100 mg per dL ( mmol per L), and the ideal HDL cholesterol level is greater than 50 mg per dL ( mmol per L). The primary target for lipid-lowering therapy is LDL cholesterol. Women at high risk whose LDL cholesterol level is greater than 100 mg per dL should receive statin therapy to reach the goal level, and those at very high risk (., multiple uncontrolled risk factors) should be considered for a target LDL cholesterol level of less than 70 mg per dL ( mmol per L). 25 , 26 Consideration also should be given to initiating pharmacologic therapy in women at high risk whose LDL cholesterol level is less than 100 mg per dL, because these women may benefit from further reduction. Pharmacologic therapy should be considered in women at intermediate risk whose LDL cholesterol levels are 130 mg per dL ( mmol per L) or greater and in those at lower risk whose LDL cholesterol levels are 160 mg per dL ( mmol per L) or greater. In women who have no more than one risk factor, a treatment threshold of LDL cholesterol 190 mg per dL ( mmol per L) or greater should be used. Triglyceride levels should be less than 150 mg per dL ( mmol per L), and combination therapy with niacin or a fibrate should be considered in women whose triglyceride levels remain elevated after LDL cholesterol level goals have been met.

The eighth target in the Global NCD action plan states at least 50% of eligible people should receive drug therapy and counselling (including glycaemic control) to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Prevention of heart attacks and strokes through a total cardiovascular risk approach is more cost-effective than treatment decisions based on individual risk factor thresholds only and should be part of the basic benefits package for pursuing universal health coverage. Achieving this target will require strengthening key health system components, including health-care financing to ensure access to basic health technologies and essential NCD medicines.

Cardiovascular damage from steroids

cardiovascular damage from steroids

The eighth target in the Global NCD action plan states at least 50% of eligible people should receive drug therapy and counselling (including glycaemic control) to prevent heart attacks and strokes. Prevention of heart attacks and strokes through a total cardiovascular risk approach is more cost-effective than treatment decisions based on individual risk factor thresholds only and should be part of the basic benefits package for pursuing universal health coverage. Achieving this target will require strengthening key health system components, including health-care financing to ensure access to basic health technologies and essential NCD medicines.

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