The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve and innervates the tongue muscles. If there is a unilateral injury to the hypoglossal nerve, the tongue will deviate towards the side of injury. In this question there is concern for an injury to the left hypoglossal nerve so you would expect tongue deviation to the left.
Horner's syndrome is characterized by ptosis, anhidrosis, miosis, enophthalmos and loss of ciliospinal reflex on the affected side of the face. It is caused by injury to the sympathetic chain, which can occur during an anterior approach to the neck.
The recurrent (inferior) laryngeal nerve is a branch of the vagus nerve (tenth cranial nerve) that supplies motor function and sensation to the larynx. A unilateral injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve may lead to voice changes including hoarseness. Bilateral nerve damage can result in breathing difficulties and aphonia, the inability to speak.
The Laser Spine Institute Exercise Video Series, including all functional activities, post-surgical exercises and descriptions were designed specifically for Laser Spine Institute patients only. If you have not been prescribed these exercises, you should contact your physician before starting this or any exercise program. Exercise is not without its risks, and this or any other exercise program may result in injury. Risks include, but are not limited to: risk of injury, aggravation of a pre-existing condition, or adverse effect of over-exertion such as muscle strain, abnormal blood pressure, fainting and disorders of heart beat. As with any exercise program, if at any point during your workout you begin to feel faint, dizzy, or have physical discomfort, you should stop immediately and consult your surgeon's liaison or physician.
Usually, foraminal narrowing only affects a single nerve root on one side of the body. However, some patients may experience bilateral foraminal narrowing, caused by nerve compression on both sides of the spine. Typically, the symptoms of bilateral foraminal narrowing include pain that develops over the course of time, often a number of years (the majority of patients are over 50). Most patients with foraminal narrowing or bilateral foraminal narrowing do not experience continuous pain, but rather have pain when they assume certain positions or engage in certain activities.